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Oman, officially called the Sultanate of Oman, is an Arab state in southwest Asia on the southeast coast of the Arabian Peninsula. It has a strategically important position at the mouth of the Persian Gulf. It is bordered by the United Arab Emirates to the northwest, Saudi Arabia to the west, and Yemen to the southwest and also shares marine borders with Iran and Pakistan. The coast is formed by the Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast. The Madha and Musandam exclaves are surrounded by the UAE on their land borders, with the Strait of Hormuz and Gulf of Oman forming Musandam's coastal boundaries.
The peninsula of Musandam exclave, which has a strategic location on the Strait of Hormuz, is separated from the rest of Oman by the United Arab Emirates. The series of small towns known collectively as Dibba are the gateway to the Musandam peninsula on land and the fishing villages of Musandam by sea, with boats available for hire at Khasab for trips into the Musandam peninsula by sea.
Like the rest of the Persian Gulf, Oman generally has a hot climate and receives little rainfall in many parts. Annual rainfall in Muscat averages 100 mm, falling mostly in January. The Dhofar Mountains area has a tropical like climate and receives seasonal rainfall as a result of the monsoon winds from the Indian Ocean saturated with cool moisture and heavy fog. The mountain areas receive more plentiful rainfall, and annual rainfall on the higher parts of the Jabal Akhdar probably exceeds 400 mm. Temperatures in the mountainous areas results in snow cover, once every few years.
Arabic is the official language of Oman. Balochi is widely spoken. Endangered languages in Oman include Bathari, Harsusi, Hobyot, Jibbali, Kumzari, Mehri. Omani Sign Language is the language of the deaf community. Although Arabic is Oman's official language, there are native speakers of different dialects, as well as Balochi or offshoots of Southern Arabian, and some descendants of Sindhi sailors.
About 75% of Oman's total population is Muslim. The Oman government does not keep statistics on religious affiliation, but most citizens are Muslims with about 75% of local population following the Ibadi School of Islam which translates to About 35-40% of the total population of who follows the Ibadi school of Islam, which is distinct from the Sunni and Shia denominations and the only remaining expression of Kharijism, which was created as a result of one of the first schisms within the religion.