Córdoba is a city in Andalucía, southern Spain
, and the capital of the province of Córdoba. Located at 37.88° North, 4.77° West, on the Guadalquivir river, it was founded in ancient Roman times as Corduba by Claudius Marcellus. Its population is 321,164 as of 2005. Today a moderately sized modern city, the old town contains many impressive architectural reminders of when Córdoba was the thriving capital of the Caliphate of Cordoba that governed almost all of the Iberian peninsula. It has been estimated that Cordoba was the largest city in the world in the tenth century. Córdoba was the birthplace of three famous philosophers: the Roman stoic Seneca, the Muslim Averroes, and the Jewish Maimonides. Córdoba was also the birthplace of the Roman poet, Lucan and (more recently) of several flamenco artists including Paco Peña, Vicente Amigo, and Joaquín Cortés.
Córdoba currently has the only city government controlled by the Communist Party of Spain. Surviving Renaissance monuments in Córdoba include the Palacio de Viana, the city's Ducal Palace. Córdoba is also known for its floral patio arrangments. Residents take great pride in their patios and compete to have the most beautiful.