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The Republic of India is a country that occupies a greater part of South Asia. It has a coastline of over seven thousand kilometres, borders Pakistan to the west, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to three island nations – the Maldives to the southwest, Sri Lanka to the south, and Indonesia to the southeast. India also claims a border with Afghanistan to the northwest.[1] The name India /'ɪndiə/ is derived from the Old Persian version of Sindhu, the historic local appellation for the River Indus (see Origin of India's name). The Constitution of India and common usage also recognise Bharat (Hindi: भारत /bʰɑːrət̪/ (help·info)), as an official name of equal status. A third name, Hindustan (Hindi: हिन्दुस्तान /hin̪d̪ust̪ɑːn/) listen (help·info) (Persian: Land of the Hindus) has been used since the twelfth century, though its contemporary use is unevenly applied due to domestic disputes by some over its representation as a national signifier. India is the fourth largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing power parity, and the tenth largest in nominal terms. With a population of over one billion, it is the second most populous country in the world and the world's largest liberal democracy. India is also seventh largest country by geographical area. As home to one of the four major ancient civilisations and a center of important trade routes, India has long played a significant role in human history. Famous for its rich religious traditions, four of the major world religions–Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism–all have their origins in India. A former colony of the British Empire, India gained independence in 1947 as a unified state. The country suffered from stagnation for many decades and was relegated to the status of a leader of the Third World. Since the 1980s, however, India has begun liberalizing its economy and opening its doors to free trade. Today, India's influence, especially in the political and economic spheres, has grown signficantly and it is now considered a major power.
Motto: "Satyameva Jayate" Sanskrit: सत्यमेव जयते /sətyəmeːvə ɟəjəteː/ ("Truth Alone Triumphs") Anthem: "Jana Gana Mana" Sanskrit: जन गण मन /ɟənə gəɳə mənə/ Location of India Capital New Delhi 28°34′ N 77°12′ E Largest city Mumbai (Bombay) Official language(s) Hindi, English, and 21 other languages Government President Prime Minister Federal republic APJ Abdul Kalam Manmohan Singh Independence - Declared - Republic From the United Kingdom 1947-08-15 1950-01-26 Area - Total - Water (%) 3,287,590 km² (7th) 1,269,346 mi² 9.56 Population - 2006 est. - 2001 census - Density 1,192,225,812 (2nd) 1,027,000,000 329/km² (19th) 852/mi² GDP (PPP) - Total - Per capita 2005 estimate $3.678 trillion (4th) $3400 (125th) HDI (2003) 0.602 (127th) – medium Currency Rupee (Rs.)1 (INR) Time zone - Summer (DST) IST (UTC+5:30) not observed (UTC+5:30) Internet TLD .in Calling code +91 1 Re. is singular

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