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Hotel Guide for Edinburgh

Geography - Edinburgh United Kingdom


Geography - Edinburgh

Some 320 million years ago, the cores of several volcanic vents in the area cooled and solidified to form tough basalt volcanic plugs, then, during the last ice age, glaciers eroded the area, exposing the plug as a rocky crag to the west, and leaving a tail of material swept to the east. At the same time, the glacier gouged out ground to each side, leaving the ravine of the Grassmarket and Cowgate to the south, and the swampy valley of the Nor Loch to the north. The resulting crag and tail landform now forms the Castle Rock, and the narrow steep sided ridge which the Royal Mile follows. The ridge declines in height over a mile, meeting general ground level at Holyrood.

This formed a natural fortress, and recent excavations at the castle found material dating back to the Late Bronze Age, as long ago as 850 BCE.


Hotel-Frederick House Edinburgh